The Terror of Nightfall According to Isaac Asimov (and John W. Campbell)


Halloween always puts me in mind of H.P. Lovecraft, my favorite writer of horror. But as I was thinking of writing a “festive” post, I realized I didn’t want to pigeonhole Lovecraft as an author one only reads when in the mood for horror. It’s too easy, and he’s too brilliant to doom to such a restriction. So I decided to sidestep, using the inevitable Lovecraft as my starting point. And I began mulling over his idea of Cosmic Horror.


Now all my tales are based on the fundamental premise that common human laws and interests and emotions have no validity or significance in the vast cosmos-at-large.


A 1962 collection of letters from Lovecraft concerning his dreams, which notoriously influenced his writing. Great jacket art!
A 1962 collection of letters from Lovecraft concerning his dreams, which notoriously influenced his writing. Great jacket art!


One of Lovecraft’s greatest triumphs was the expression of a sort of hysterical wail, based in the recognition that man is nothing in a fundamentally hostile universe. His works tend to build, as he says,

A certain atmosphere of breathless and unexplainable dread of outer, unknown forces…


Thinking over this, I realized the description could be applied in a very different way to another great work of science fiction—a work not intending to terrify readers, but to suggest a terror entirely unknown to them.  I’m speaking of Isaac Asimov’s early short story “Nightfall.”


Next to the Foundation Series and the Robot Series, “Nightfall” is probably Asimov’s best known and most acclaimed work. It’s widely (and deservedly) anthologized, and was once voted as the best science fiction short story of all time.


A first edition of the first novel in the Foundation series.
A first edition of the first novel in the Foundation series.


“Nightfall” first appeared in John W. Campbell’s formative Astounding Science Fiction pulp magazine in 1941. Campbell was both the most influential editor in the history of science fiction and infamously dictatorial with his authors (which is another blog post entirely!).


According to Asimov, “Nightfall” began as a conversation between himself and Campbell about Emerson. They were discussing a quote from Emerson’s essay Nature (1836), which famously established the philosophical foundation for Transcendentalism:


If the stars should appear one night in a thousand years, how would men believe and adore, and preserve for many generations the remembrance of the city of God!


For sf-outsiders, I won’t ruin the story for you. But the basic premise is this: a world called Lagash is located in a system that has six suns. As such, all the suns become blocked from the planet’s view only once every two thousand years, which is therefore the only time that true night occurs. A group of scientists and a growing Cult are preparing for the coming apocalypse they both believe will occur once night falls for the first time in two millennia—because in reality the most human reaction to this event, after lifetimes of sunlight, would be madness.


In other words, Campbell and Asimov disagreed with Emerson.


He stared moodily out at the skyline where Gamma, the brightest of the planet’s six suns, was setting. It had already faded and yellowed into the horizon mists, and Aton knew he would never see it again as a sane man.


“Nightfall” started as a dialogue with Emerson, but in this sense it also admirably demonstrates the great capacity for inter-author dialogue that emerged in sf circles around the 1930s, which enriched the genre beyond its typical bounds that supported mostly just a few very successful novelists (Wells, Burroughs, etc.). It also represented a new trend of what Asimov himself coined “social science fiction,” using science fiction settings to explore the psychology of humanity. Led by Campbell and filled in by Asimov, Heinlein, and Clarke, science fiction would soon be entering its Golden Age.


Asimov was 21 when the story was published—in fact still just a graduate student in chemistry at Columbia—but it was a major turning point in his career as a writer.


I was suddenly taken seriously and the world of science fiction became aware that I existed.


That’s not to say the story is flawless. Asimov was never great at drawing characters, and some of his dialogue is, frankly, cringe-inducing. But sf newbies, don’t let that turn you off. Asimov will grant you new perspectives, make you think, and provide plenty of entertainment along the way.


I do love Asimov, despite his failings. The man created a wildly successful science fiction universe, the Foundation series, based on Gibbon’s History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (one of my favorite works ever). Plus, he was a prominent Baker Street Irregular. If you have some time this Halloween, please pick up “Nightfall” and savor reading all about a terror we can’t even conceive of.



12 Comments Add yours

  1. awax1217 says:

    I use to read Lovecraft but then fell in with King.

  2. William says:

    What constitutes “fair use” in a university course would be copyright infringement in this venue.

    1. Thanks for that. I’ll check and remove the link in the above comment in the meantime.

  3. ltishgart says:

    “Nightfall” read together with “Darkness” by Lord Byron is truly terrifying!

  4. Erik Nelson says:

    based on the framework still decided was worth the buy. typically i find that even average written stories have redeeming qualities/ideas

  5. Reblogged this on Bibliodeviancy and commented:
    Once again…sharp, insightful blogging from Miss Romney. Sigh…

  6. Tom Rathwell says:

    Hi Rebecca,

    I’m disappointed that you like Adimov’s writings. It causes me to surmise that you won’t have those great looks for long. Beauty, wisdom, and health from within promotes exterior beauty. Anyway, I hope ;you get your own television show before it fades away.

  7. Tom Rathwell says:

    Hi Rebecca,

    I was watching Pawn Stars last night, and there was a segment with you. You were in that bland suit that you usually wear. Still, you looked gorgeous as can be; I think if you were in a potato sack, you would look terrific. Anyway, Rick came to your place of business, and said that he purchased a book for $13,000 that he thought was signed by Shoeless Joe Jackson. You expressed doubt that the signature was genuine, and thought his purchase was analogous to him getting screwed. Perhaps you might lighten up on your metaphors; Pawn Stars is a family show.

    On another subject, In a couple of weeks it will have been 50 years since President Kennedy’s assassination. Do you know of any good books about JFK, what is your opinion of him, and what group do you think might have orchestrated his murder?

    1. Craig Johnson says:

      Wow Tom, your comments managed to be rude, inappropriate, and more than a little creepy, all the while maintaining their status as self-possessed solecisms. I’m curious, did you actually expect her to reply to your question, given the way you insulted her by reducing her value to that of aging game show model with a deficient wardrobe?

      1. Tom Rathwell says:

        Telling a woman that she looks gorgeous in a bland suit, and would look great even in a potato sack is hardly an insult. By the way I do quite well with women; I would guess the same is not true with you.

      2. Tom Rathwell says:

        I had just woken up when I read your message, and perhaps I was a bit harsh with you in my reply. It is certainly not a bad thing that you went to Rebecca’s defense, although it did strike me as somewhat aberrant.

  8. R. Parkhurst says:

    Rebecca, I am loving your posts! I am so happy to now know they are here. Thank you!

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